Aws Nvme Iops

This means that the data is kept on the AWS EBS servers even when the EC2 instances are shut down. NVM Express® is an open collection of standards and information to fully expose the benefits of non-volatile memory in all types of computing environments from mobile to data center. GCE local SSD 4k read IOPs max out at around 200k/volume and 800k/instance w/4 volumes. MongoDB Atlas is the best way to deploy, manage, and grow MongoDB on AWS. Some EC2 instances have dedicated NVMe SSD storage with vastly more IOPS, e. The instance broke 1ms at around 55K IOPS. So if we specify that a 4KB size and a 90IOPS with a disk through put X MBPS then we do not really need to worry about latency right as our 90 IOPS will ensure that customers provide a disk with all the right kind of rpm and seek time etc that satisfies 90IOPS. Using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) a very granular access control is possible. Shop Gigabyte M. AWS EBS volumes offer two main kinds of block storage: IOPS-optimized backed by SSDs or throughput-optimized backed by HDDs. Rackspace Support Home How-To Developer Documentation Technical Blog The Rackspace Support Documentation provides guidance for users of all Rackspace services. We have some NVME-drives in our Starwind-nodes, and I'm wondering if there are any performance tests on NVME-drives + Starwind with the latest release vs previous release. The NVMe version of the instance in the Oracle 90-10 was able to hit 520,448 IOPS with a latency of 333μs. For more information on this and other AWS EBS Performance issues, check out our free eBook: The Top 5 Ways to Improve Your AWS EC2 Performance. In this blog, we’ll use some test results to look at the rationale for using provisioned IOPS volumes for AWS databases. I haven't measured c5 local nvme yet, but on i3, local nvme volumes run at 100-400k/volume and up to 3. There is no introduction or conclusion to this post, only landing sections: reading this post without its context is not not recommended. Minio is concentrating on bandwidth, not latency or IOPS, and has blogged/publicised four tests in the last four weeks: Minio S3 with hard disk drive storage, Minio S3 with NVMe flash drive storage, Presto on Minio vs Amazon S3, Apache Spark with Minio back-end vs AWS S3. Fanatical Support for AWS ». Changing the volume type is not straight forward for all the volume types. • Apeiron architecture – NVMe over Ethernet • Noe / NVMe over Fabrics comparison • The Apeiron Storage SolutionThe Apeiron Storage Solution • Captive storage vs. We chose 100GB for each SSD test. Below are a few suggestions: 1. This is a clear violation of anti-trust law and prosecutableTODAY on 100 year old foundations of law. 3 million IOPs on the largest instance type (i3. NVMe in user space § Provides POSIX VFS through IOPS Cluster size Linear Scalability -IOPS ~375MB/sec/AWS Instance <400 microsecond latency. Benchmarking performance for today’s high -performance Enterprise PCIe* and NVMe* Solid-State Drives (SSDs), such as Intel® SSD DC P3x00 series, involves more than verifying a few data points on the product datasheet. A quick reaction leans towards a strange one. Shop Gigabyte M. IOPS are linked with GB size of disks both at SCSI or NVMe More. Oracle RAC in AWS with FlashGrid SkyCluster. The maximum cluster we can have today in VMC/AWS is 16 nodes, thus your cluster could scale to 560TB. 820/hr of i2. Where to buy your Samsung 960 EVO or PRO M. The AWS factor. 4xlarge) but it still works out to $3. If you are using large EBS GP2 volumes for MySQL (i. C5D Intro: AWS EC2 Instances with Local NVMe Storage. 2 80mm 256GB SSD 3D2 TLC PCIe NVMe 3210/1315MB/s 205K/265K IOPS 1. These volumes are ideal for both IOPS-intensive and throughput-intensive workloads that require extremely low latency. Shop Gigabyte M. IO1 is designed to deliver a consistent baseline performance of up to 50 IOPS/GB to a maximum of 64,000 IOPS and provide up to 1,000 MB/s of throughput per volume 1. Provisioned IOPS only offer a partial solution to this issue, at a higher hourly cost. -description Magnetic_to_SSD_Conversion. When you upgrade to NVMe/FC, you can deliver up to 60% more IOPS or cut application response time in half. A Storage Stack at the speed of NVMe & 3D XPoint Published on Benchmarks we carried out some time ago showed a limit of ~300K IOPs per logical SCSI unit (LUN) and high latency due to the IO. CS349D Cloud Computing AWS Lambda functions-as-a-service NVMe Flash 4KB IOPS 500K – 1M Disk 4K IOPS 100 – 200. Machine learning, big-data analytics and other AI workloads have traditionally utilized the map-reduce model of computing where data is local to the compute jobs. SolidFire enables Immedion to run tier 0, high-performance storage in its cloud environment with guaranteed IOPS. 5 times to over 500 times faster. The NVMe Protocol could allow users to implement a Private Robust Data Transfer Protocol NVMe and reek the benefits of Ethernet when it reaches 100Gb, +. We use two example database workloads: (i) TPC-C [1] with MySQL, and. The maximum cluster we can have today in VMC/AWS is 16 nodes, thus your cluster could scale to 560TB. Where to buy your Samsung 960 EVO or PRO M. 820/hr of i2. IOPS【Input/Output Per Second】とは、ハードディスクなどの記憶装置の性能指標の一つで、ある条件の元で1秒間に読み込み・書き込みできる回数のこと。. Standard_L80s_v2 provides 800 GiB at 40,000 IOPS and 800 MBPS). I've seen it take the run time of a Docker build from over an hour (not sure how much over, because at that point it timed out, unfinished) to just 15 minutes—and. Need for Speed With this performance, people are starting to do very interesting things in the datacenter with NVMe devices. 5 million IOPS from NVMe storage devices; the. In a previous post, I used an i2. I started with. - Duration: 31:22. This is done through a high-speed, low latency connection from Dell EMC storage at a managed service provider to the cloud(s). 0 interface standard, as well as highly efficient Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) Protocol. VMware Cloud uses AWS i3. How to Improve Latency Using Amazon EBS Volumes and Cloud Volumes ONTAP with Intelligent NVMe Caching. DataON TracSystem, certified for Microsoft Windows Server, is a fully integrated and turnkey hyper-converged solution with Windows Server 2016 Storage Spaces Direct Powered by the end-to-end Mellanox RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE) solution, and all-flash NVMe SSDs, DataON TracSystem achieves exceptional performance of 3M IOPS in a four. Currently, the best AWS EC2 instance to use with SAS Foundation, SAS Grid and SAS Viya is the I2 instance family. It means that I have to delete instance and create a new one. Flash and Solid State Devices (SSDs) are a type of non-volatile memory (NVM). IOPS are linked with GB size of disks both at SCSI or NVMe More. Comparing EBS and SSD volumes on i3. Queue depth, or more specifically concepts like the number of outstanding IO or the number of "threads" used in a testing tool, is one of the more misunderstood concepts with performance testing. Thus, to get 10K IOPS, you need a minimum 3TB volume size. Armed with NVMe, the EF600 will double the performance of arrays using SAS Channelnomics Staff Storage solutions vendor NetApp is introducing a new midrange storage array that offers the NVMe protocol to accelerate the processing of analytics workloads and data-intensive applications like those found in the high-performance computing (HPC) space. Yesterday, NetApp announced a new addition to the midrange tier of their All-Flash FAS line, the AFF A320. "If your data center is already operating very near its maximum power budget, even though you might need less floorspace if you move to NVMe, that might put you over your power budget," he notes. Targeting cloud providers, Vexata has separated its software and hardware, to offering file and block access software on commodity servers. Next, we show how real world applications can benefit from the improved raw performance of NVMe SSDs. Amazon Web Services Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) Source Code This workload resulted in higher throughput from the provisioned IOPS (io1) and NVMe configurations. If you save or bookmark the short link, you can return to your calculation at a later time. I'm using an AWS i3. These new machines feature local NVMe storage, which offers significantly faster throughput than standard SSDs. It now delivers up to 21GBps of bandwidth, 1 million sustained IOPS, sub-100 microsecond latency, and support for 100Gb NVMe over InfiniBand to increase application responsiveness and to accelerate analytics. This entry was posted on Friday, March 8th, 2019 at 10:41 am and is filed under Ethernet Data Storage , File Storage , NVMe. You need to halt the. When you select General-SSD the IOPS box is still there, and the cost is. you’ll come to know that. 22ms latency. AWS gives developers larger instances to work with John Mannes 3 years Amazon kicked off its 2016 AWS re:Invent conference with a peppering of announcements regarding its EC2 instance roadmap. The mainstream NVMe product in the new family is the 983 DCT, based on the PM983's combination of TLC NAND and the Phoenix controller that also powers the 970 PRO and 970 EVO consumer SSDs. I received an answer from our AWS support and thought I'd share. When asked this question, one industry insider stated that the million IOPS potential of NVMe flash storage (compared with 200,000 IOPS potential of AHCI-SAS/SATA connected flash) is really only a "must-have" for 4K video editing at present. The C5D vastly outperforms the C5 and T2 in File IO due to the nvme disk, with nearly 4 times the read and write capability of a C5 instance. In addition, the Optane tests revealed up to a 2. The underlying architecture exploits native NVMe flash drives over a high performance network fabric in a uniquely scalable way. If it is tied to a specific availability zone, it also guarantees that if you don't have an instance running that matches the reservation, there's always one available for you to launch, which is why you pay whether it is running or not. In AWS, Cloud Volumes ONTAP uses EBS storage for user data and local NVMe storage as Flash Cache on some EC2 instance types. Well the short answer is that NVMe is going to become the dominant interface for SSDs. Alexander Fedorov 10,398,659 views. Raj March 20, 2018. And it's all in a compact, 2U package. This changes with AWS’ new announcement of the I3en family of instances. Microsoft open sources its Azure server design, which is called Project Olympus. IOPS Utilization is an important metric, as it allows you to identify under- and over-utilized EBS volumes, which in turn can help you pinpoint cost-saving opportunities. I'm using an AWS i3. "NVMe, Storage Class Memory and Operational Databases: Real-World Results" — Brian Bulkowski, CTO and Founder August, 2016 for about 2,000 IOPS. 5 GB/s ceiling as far as. Knowing how many IOPs our VMs drive, our hosts drive, and our storage can handle is critical when you are troubleshooting issues and trying to map out your future capacity needs. Western Digital’s new vertically integrated SSD platform was engineered from the ground up, specifically architected to help maximize performance for NVMe SSDs, with advanced power management, durability and endurance for the growing range of applications benefiting from NVMe technology. In a previous post, I used an i2. Flash and Solid State Devices (SSDs) are a type of non-volatile memory (NVM). Since requirements for compute and memory are typically correlated, Google, like Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Azure, preconfigures instances with fixed ratios of RAM to virtual CPU. And in the next 2-3 years, we will see a slew of new storage solutions and technology based on NVMe. Veeam Community discussions and solutions for: AWS VTL and Veeam B&R9. It also provides a number of different categories of images, each tailored for different use cases. Amazon Web Services (AWS) i3 instances are now available. Over the last few weeks I have needed to calculate the theoretical amount of IOPS a collection of disks can produce a few times and to help myself I created a spreadsheet with all the inputs I would need and this then produced a theoretical calculation of the amount of IOPS the disk collection could produce. And I believe the desire is spurred by Amazon Web Services announcement of their Graviton processor at AWS re:Invent last month. AWS still a cash machine for Bezos, Intel is down a 5G modem biz, and Google is on Tulsi Gabbard's bad side IOPS, capacity New entry-level and mid-range bring NVMe fabric acceleration. Organizations gain an on demand, cloud consumption model for both compute workloads and. Part 1 of 3: Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) NVMe is a protocol used to access storage on a PI Express bus. Using Infoscale Enterprise As described earlier in this document, understand the IOPS requirement for your workload and then choose the appropriate EC2. The AWS factor. AWS i3 instances utilize Intel Xeon. EBS storage In AWS, an aggregate can contain up to 6 disks that are all the same size. Oracle RAC in AWS with FlashGrid SkyCluster. The planned use of NVMe is clearly in 2 different points of the host->storage array communication path. provisioned IOPS SSD, 500 provisioned IOPS SSD, and throughput optimised HDD (500GB). This new development is expected to up the ante in storage considerably. ecause the PIe bus offers several high-speed lanes that can be used in parallel, SSDs with NVMe interfaces support 3x more IOPS than the previous generation of SSDs with Serial-Attached SSI (SAS) interfaces. Amazon EBS provides the following volume types, which differ in performance characteristics and price, so that you can tailor your storage performance and cost to the needs of your applications. Veeam Community discussions and solutions for: AWS VTL and Veeam B&R9. • Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) ベースのSSD を利用可能 • Elastic Network Adaptor (ENA)により最大20Gbps • 負荷の高いリレーショナルデータベースや、NoSQLデータベースに最適 I3 Instance Size vCPU Memory (GiB) Storage Read IOPS Write IOPS i3. 5 million IOPS from NVMe storage devices; the. Well the short answer is that NVMe is going to become the dominant interface for SSDs. Write operations are just brutal with that narrow queue depth and it is a 100% software update. AWS made several announcements and addition of new features at AWS-RE:INVENT 2018 at LAS Vegas NV. 000 IOPS and a bandwidth of 3. It did, in fact, show the lowest utilization and highest write IOPS performance. Instances with Intel XEON and AMD EPYC processors, the latest generation NVMe SSDs, providing millions of IOPS and very low latency, are ideal for I/O intensive web applications, the most demanding big data workloads, and Oracle Database. for 100 Gbit networking and NVMe an average IOPS. GP2 storage is the AWS default option and is now always SSD. Real apples-to-apples comparison would be to compare Oracle baremeral NVMe SSDs to AWS EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) Volumes. Back to the orignal question of what is best tool for doing I/O and IOPs, are you going to be doing saturation or seeing how much a device can do, or check response time/latency, or how a system response time degrades as workload is increased, or looking at bandwidth?. But when the aggregate storage needs to sustain very high IOPS, as is the case during random 4 kB reads, i3. AWS acquired Annapurna Labs in. Oracle Beats Amazon Web Services in Head-to-Head Cloud Database Comparison; Comparison of Database Cloud Services; Larry Ellison -- Oracle OpenWorld Keynote 09-20-2016 (@14-30 mins) HPE Reference Architecture for Oracle Database on HPE ProLiant DL580 Gen9 &HPE 3PAR StoreServ 8450 All-Flash. Imagine the improvement on performance when 100 IOPS goes up to 1000 IOPS(which is the minimum IOPS for P-IOPS deployment). Below is a summary of the session I did on VMAX at Dell Technologies World. The company can quickly grow its platform by adding nodes, making it easy to expand its cloud infrastructure to support new customers, also reducing risk and better aligning revenues and expenses. I wonder why that is? I only write on the NVMe instance storage. This changes with AWS’ new announcement of the I3en family of instances. NVMe over fabric push. He has a wealth of hands-on IT experience gained over the past 20 years in a variety of technologies, with the past 10 years focused on virtualization and storage. IOPS Utilization is an important metric, as it allows you to identify under- and over-utilized EBS volumes, which in turn can help you pinpoint cost-saving opportunities. Veeam Community discussions and solutions for: AWS VTL and Veeam B&R9. It did, in fact, show the lowest utilization and highest write IOPS performance. and Intel Corp. Real apples-to-apples comparison would be to compare Oracle baremeral NVMe SSDs to AWS EBS Provisioned IOPS SSD (io1) Volumes. 5in format solid state drives via the U. 6 GB Per Second, 1 Million IOPS (hothardware. Object storage (also referred to as object-based storage) is a general term that refers to the way in which we organize and work with units of storage, called objects. An apple to apples comparison between Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud is a difficult proposition. I started with. Supermicro Delivers 18 Million IOPS of Storage Performance in 2U Ultra Server August 23, 2017 SAN JOSE, Calif. A Review of NVMe Optional Features for Cloud SSD Customization An intermix of requirements: capacity, performance, density, latency, power and TCO To architect optimal data management and storage solutions for cloud data centers is, to say the least, complex. This is done through a high-speed, low latency connection from Dell EMC storage at a managed service provider to the cloud(s). There are many potential future applications for the improvements NVMe brings to flash storage. If your test suite is unreasonably slow on EC2, do check for this problem. Software-driven NVMe flash management eliminates conventional solid-state drives (SSDs). Sign in Sign up. CS349D Cloud Computing AWS Lambda functions-as-a-service NVMe Flash 4KB IOPS 500K – 1M Disk 4K IOPS 100 – 200. 8xlarge instance in US East North Virginia region is $2. 000 IOPS and a bandwidth of 3. NVMe SSD drives: NVMe SSD drives in a storage array, attached via NVMe host controller interface in order to be able to fully utilise the latency and throughput potential of the SSD drives themselves by the storage processor (in the. Use placement group. For performance critical situations, I guess some people or companies should choose P-IOPS even when they are charged 100X more. • NVM Express - architected for solid state storage • Captive storage limitations • Apeiron architecture - NVMe over Ethernet • Noe / NVMe over Fabrics comparison • The Apeiron Storage SolutionThe Apeiron Storage Solution • Captive storage vs. ESXi SSD / NVME actual IOPS numbers Here's a whole story: 1) Microsoft storage stack is a very old code, it was written and designed when underlying storage was slow. 2: 4 kB aligned random I/O with four workers at QD4 (effectively QD16), 1 TB model 14,000 read IOPS, 50,000 write IOPS at QD1 330,000 read IOPS, 330,000 write IOPS on 500 GB model 300,000 read IOPS, 330,000 write IOPS on 250 GB model. We have some NVME-drives in our Starwind-nodes, and I'm wondering if there are any performance tests on NVME-drives + Starwind with the latest release vs previous release. I wonder why that is? I only write on the NVMe instance storage. Whether for work or play, Synology offers a wide range of network-attached storage (NAS) choices for every occasion. While its scale-out design supports both high capacity and high throughput, the stereotype is that Ceph doesn’t support the low latency and high IOPS typically required by database workloads. EBS volumes are highly available and reliable storage volumes that can be attached to the EC2 instances of the same Availability Zone over AWS internal network. Whether it's a flash drive or an enterprise SSD, we always know what we are getting when Samsung releases a new storage product: quality components, good performance, and. 2: 4 kB aligned random I/O with four workers at QD4 (effectively QD16), 1 TB model 14,000 read IOPS, 50,000 write IOPS at QD1 330,000 read IOPS, 330,000 write IOPS on 500 GB model 300,000 read IOPS, 330,000 write IOPS on 250 GB model. All gists Back to GitHub. AWS Elastic Block Store (EBS) is Amazon's block-level storage solution used with the EC2 cloud service to store persistent data. NVMe has demonstrated the highest read CPU utilization and not the best IOPS performance for that amount of utilization. Run your applications over blazing-fast, NVMe-backed EC2 instances and use Rok to instantly snapshot them, efficiently store snapshots on S3, and instantly clone them anywhere, even outside AWS. io has the highest performing virtualized IOPs with Intel Optane and NVMe drives. For those unaware, AWS EC2 C5D instances are high-performance block storage instances. Cloud Volumes ONTAP is available in AWS and Azure in two pricing options: pay-as-you-go and Bring Your Own License (BYOL). 4 million credit, and that gets used up at a 3000/sec rate. © 2018, Amazon Web Services, Inc. NVMe SR-IOV extension allows splitting the storage drives across VM (instances). It did, in fact, show the lowest utilization and highest write IOPS performance. Ceph is traditionally known for both object and block storage, but not for database storage. It also provides a number of different categories of images, each tailored for different use cases. And low latency, high IOPs are critical to keeping expensive GPUs saturated with data. The Samsung 970 EVO Plus delivers sequential read and write speeds of 3500 /3300 Mbps thanks to the latest V-NAND technology with 9x layers and capacities up to 2 TB in a compact M. The Get Link button generates a URL for this page with all currently entered data and then shortens it using the Bitly service. Another Intel blog goes through model part #, capacity, form factor and tier information of the NVMe SSDs. You must need to halt the instance and change the volume type. Performance of local NVMe, combined with EBS-like flexibility, in a fraction of your current AWS cost. I3 instances will deliver up to 3. Performance Metrics. The AWS factor. An AWS EBS volume can have a maximum of 3000 IOPS while an AWS account can have a total of 40K IOPS shared between all the volumes. This has made it media vertical’s favorite instance out of the lot. RocksDB-Cloud is a Open-Source C++ library that brings the power of RocksDB to AWS, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure. An explanation of IOPS and latency awsだった一方、スループットではaws > gcpとなる面白い結果になりました。大容量ファイルなどの書込時にはスループットが指標となるため、awsはそういった書込みに対しては強いということがわかりました。 飽和時でのディスク性能比較. AWS [0], and, for the tests that I ran, found that GCP outperformed AWS by a factor of 3:1. This disk provides 80 GiB of storage, 4,000 IOPS, and 80 MBps transfer rate for every 8 vCPUs (e. Most probably gap will be even more, as io1 is not local. This setting requires that providerSettings. xlarge 6,000 IOPS 16KB I/O 93. Shop Gigabyte M. Benchmarking performance for today’s high -performance Enterprise PCIe* and NVMe* Solid-State Drives (SSDs), such as Intel® SSD DC P3x00 series, involves more than verifying a few data points on the product datasheet. Microsoft open sources its Azure server design, which is called Project Olympus. We start with 10X faster NVMe hard drives, add to that 100+ custom OS-level optimizations, and mirror your data for both redundancy and speed. -description Magnetic_to_SSD_Conversion. Not surprisingly, after converting from Sysbench numbers (requests per second per MySQL instance) to IOPS, AWS performance was as advertised—30 read IOPS/GB and 26 write IOPS/GB. You need to halt the. EBS volume performance capabilities are based on the volume size. IOPS do matter…BUT mainly for random R/W activity since other workloads tend to be pretty steady. IOPS (Input/Output Operations Per Second, pronounced i-ops) is a common performance measurement used to benchmark computer storage devices like hard disk drives (HDD), solid state drives (SSD), and storage area networks (SAN). It also provides a number of different categories of images, each tailored for different use cases. This is a clear violation of anti-trust law and prosecutableTODAY on 100 year old foundations of law. Supported configurations for Cloud Volumes ONTAP 9. The E8 storage technology architecture is the first to break completely with the storage architectures built round mechanical devices. Need for Speed With this performance, people are starting to do very interesting things in the datacenter with NVMe devices. IOPS 계산 방법 IOPS 란? IOPS(Input/Output Operations Per Second, IOPS)는 HDD, SDD 또는 NVMe등 저장장치의 속도를 나타내는데 단위입니다. For performance critical situations, I guess some people or companies should choose P-IOPS even when they are charged 100X more. (You can get the full details in the AWS documentation). A Review of NVMe Optional Features for Cloud SSD Customization An intermix of requirements: capacity, performance, density, latency, power and TCO To architect optimal data management and storage solutions for cloud data centers is, to say the least, complex. 5in format solid state drives via the U. I wanted to upgrade from Ubuntu 14. for 100 Gbit networking and NVMe an average IOPS. Pretty good, but in the never ending quest for…. Knowing how many IOPs our VMs drive, our hosts drive, and our storage can handle is critical when you are troubleshooting issues and trying to map out your future capacity needs. 5X greater IOPS* for write-intensive workloads when compared to the same tests run using the Intel P3700 NVMe SSD as the caching tier. C5D Intro: AWS EC2 Instances with Local NVMe Storage For those unaware, AWS EC2 C5D instances are high-performance block storage instances. Run your applications over blazing-fast, NVMe-backed EC2 instances and use Rok to instantly snapshot them, efficiently store snapshots on S3, and instantly clone them anywhere, even outside AWS. 43 100% Provisioned 100 IOPS 1h 42m 01s 195% 184. 000 IOPS and a bandwidth of 3. Cluster have 24TB of data, each node have 5TB external EBS mounted. Those are optimized to run on bare-metal AWS infrastructure. 23, 2017 — Super Micro Computer, Inc. There is no introduction or conclusion to this post, only landing sections: reading this post without its context is not not recommended. Local Flash on the database: A single locally attached NVMe will achieve more than 100k IOPS where a remote SAN may only achieve 2k IOPS. Introducing the AFF A800 Array The industry’s first all-flash array with end-to-end NVMe The new NVMe-based NetApp AFF A800 is the first all-flash array in the industry to support NVMe SSDs and NVMe/FC connectivity. This changes with AWS’ new announcement of the I3en family of instances. I've been bullish on NVM Express (NVMe) for the last year. 2 NVMe drive disappearance after any Supermicro Xeon D BIOS change. With up to 60TB of attached local NVMe fast storage, workloads for which storage capacity is the determining factor will become significantly cheaper. An explanation of IOPS and latency